Temperament theory describes 4 fundamentally different core patterns of observable behavior found in all people.
To discover what your temperament is, take our Free Personality Test.
Our Free Personality Test will show you what your Termperament and 4 letter Personality Type are.
Knowing your own temperament will tell you a lot about your self. Knowing the temperament of others will help you understand them better and get along with them better.
People with the same temperament will share some of the same basic traits:
Just as with Personality Type, your Temperament remains the same from birth to death.
We have David Keirsey Ph.D. (August 31, 1921 - ) to thank for researching the history and for elaborating the theory of the 4 Temperaments in his book Please Understand Me II.
According to Keirsey, Plato (340 BC), Aristotle (325 BC), and Galen (190 AD) found similar way to divide up people into four groups based on observable behavior.
|Plato 340 BC||Artisan||Guardian||Idealist||Rational|
|Aristotle 325 BC||Hedonic||Proprietary||Ethical||Dialectical|
|Galen 190 AD||Sanguine||Melancholic||Choleric||Phlegmatic|
|Myers 1958||Probing||Scheduling||Friendly||Tough Minded|
Subsequent to Keirsey, author, psychologist and trainer Linda Berens Ph.D. updated the names and descriptions of the 4 temperaments in her book Understanding Yourself and Others, In Introduction to the 4 Temperaments.